Frequently Used Terms
The following terms are commonly used in connection to science and the administration of cancer programs and grants. This list is not exhaustive.
- AACR: American Association of Cancer Research
AACR is the oldest and largest scientific organization in the world focused on every aspect of high-quality, innovative cancer research. Its reputation for scientific breadth and excellence attract the premier researchers in the field. The programs and services of AACR foster the exchange of knowledge and new ideas among scientists dedicated to cancer research, provide training opportunities for the next generation of cancer researchers, and increase public understanding of cancer.
- AORN: ASSOCIATION OF PERIOPERATIVE NURSES
AORN is the professional organization of perioperative registered nurses whose mission is to support registered nurses in achieving optimal outcomes for patients undergoing operative and other invasive procedure
- ASCO: AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
ASCO is a non-profit organization, founded in 1964, with overarching goals of improving cancer care and prevention and ensuring that all patients with cancer receive care of the highest quality
Provides researchers with the tools, information technologies, and analytical methodologies needed to manage the large volumes of data generated by novel types of research -- and to harvest insights from the information collected
- BSA: NCI BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS
Provide scientific advice on a wide variety of matters concerning scientific program policy, progress and future direction of the NCI's extramural research programs, and concept review of extramural program initiatives
- CANCER CENTERS:
Centerpiece of the nation's effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cancer. A comprehensive cancer center has reasonable depth and breadth of research activities in each of three major areas: basic, clinical, and prevention, control, behavioral, and population-based research AND exhibits a strong body of interactive research that bridges these scientific areas. A clinical cancer center has reasonable research activities in clinical oncology, with or without research encompassing the basic and/or prevention and control and population sciences. A clinical center is also expected to conduct early phase, and innovative clinical trials and to participate in the NCI cooperative groups. A cancer center exclusively focuses in the basic or population sciences, including epidemiology, diagnosis, immunology, or others.
- CCCT: COORDINATING CENTER FOR CLINICAL TRIALS
Project management for the implementation of all CTWG initiatives will be provided by the Coordinating Center for Clinical Trials (CCCT). CCCT will support a number of significant activities, including coordinating new disease-specific steering committees for prioritization of phase III trials, the investigational drug steering committee for phase I and II trials, and working groups that will develop critical new tools for clinical investigators, as well as measures to improve clinical trial operational efficiency.
- CCR: NCI CENTER FOR CANCER RESEARCH
Basic and clinical research arm of the NCI's intramural program, which is committed to better patient care and their ability to leverage a multidisciplinary environment to solve complex scientific problems to advance cancer and AIDS research
- CEP: CAREER ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM (FORMERLY CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM)
Funds designated within a SPORE's P50 Grant to advance a Postdoctoral or Clinical Fellow, junior faculty, or an established investigator, who wish to develop or refocus their careers on translational research
- CLINICAL ENDPOINT:
A disease, symptom, or sign that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial
- CLINICAL TRIAL:
A prospective biomedical or behavioral research study of human subjects that is designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions (drugs, treatments, devices, or new ways of using known drugs, treatments, or devices). Used to determine whether new biomedical or behavioral interventions are safe, efficacious, and effective.
A collection of specimens and/or research services dedicated to support one or more research project(s) of the SPORE
- CSR: NIH CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC REVIEW
Serves as the central receipt point for all research and training grant applications, assigns all NIH applications to the appropriate institutes or centers for consideration for funding, provides the scientific merit review of most research grant and fellowship applications submitted to the NIH, and assists other NIH components in providing information on the NIH peer review system and information about the research grant and fellowship application process and procedures to the scientific community, the Congress, other NIH staff, and the general public
- CTAC: NCI CLINICAL TRIALS ADVISORY COMMITTEE
CTAC is an external oversight committee, governed by the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, that will advise the NCI Director on the institute's Clinical Trials Program and will include members of NCAB as well as other NCI advisory boards and additional cancer clinical trials experts. CTAC will oversee implementation of Clinical Trials Working Group (CTWG) initiatives, including a review of the system to evaluate and measure the effects of the implementation. CTAC also will provide advice on the use of “correlative science funds,” additional funding allotted to specific clinical trials for correlative science and quality-of-life studies.
- CTEP: NCI CANCER THERAPY EVALUATION PROGRAM
The mission of the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) is to improve the lives of cancer patients by finding better ways to treat, control and cure cancer. CTEP accomplishes this mission by funding an extensive national program of cancer research and by sponsoring clinical trials to evaluate new anti-cancer agents, with a particular emphasis on translational research to elucidate molecular targets and mechanisms of drug effects.
- DCB: NCI DIVISION OF CANCER BIOLOGY
The overall responsibilities of the branches of DCB include: (1) providing scientific management of a portfolio of grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts in areas relevant to cancer biology; (2) facilitating investigator-initiated research by working with individual investigators, professional societies, and research institutions to provide information, advice, and guidance on opportunities for research support; (3) identifying and addressing needs in scientific areas, through discussions, meetings, workshops/conferences, and a variety of mechanisms of support and assistance; (4) communicating to scientists areas of special interest and scientific opportunity; (5) reporting on scientific progress and program accomplishments to the scientific community, the Institute, the Congress, and the public; (6) providing stewardship of the Federal investment in biomedical research; and (7) establishing program priorities that promote the opportunities identified in the NCI Plan and Budget.
- DCCPS: NCI DIVISION OF CANCER CONTROL AND POPULATION SCIENCES
The Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences both generates new knowledge and seeks to ensure that the products of cancer control research are effectively applied in all segments of the population. Through innovative research initiatives, leadership, and the synthesis of knowledge and its dissemination, we are building this program to be the nation's model for cancer control science
- DCEG: NCI DIVISION OF CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY AND GENETICS
Conducts population and multidisciplinary research to discover the genetic and environmental determinants of cancer and new approaches to cancer prevention. Through its programs in cancer epidemiology, genetics, statistics, and related areas, the Division: (1) conducts broad-based, high quality, high impact research; (2) maintains a national and international perspective, giving priority to emergent issues identified through clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic observations, as well as to public health concerns identified by the Institute, Congress, regulatory agencies, and other appropriate bodies; (3) develops infrastructures, resources, and strategic partnerships in molecular epidemiology across NCI, NIH, and the extramural community; and (4) trains the next generation of scientists in cancer epidemiology and related fields
- DCP: NCI DIVISION OF CANCER PREVENTION
A matrix organization committed to evidence-based cancer prevention research. The goals are to advance biomedical science, strengthen preventive medicine and improve public health. Research is carried out through the positive interactive efforts of all DCP staff dedicated to the success of the Division's activities.
- DCTD: NCI DIVISION OF CANCER TREATMENT AND DIAGNOSIS
DCTD attempts to identify and exploit the most promising areas of science and technology and to initiate, enable, and conduct research that will yield important new knowledge that is likely to lead to better diagnostic or therapeutic interventions in the various cancers that affect children and adults
- DEA: NCI DIVISION OF EXTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES
In essence, the DEA is the organizational component of the NCI that coordinates the scientific review of extramural research before funding, and provides systematic surveillance of that research after awards are made. In this latter role, the DEA assists the NCI in its goal of achieving a balanced portfolio of research in biology; behavior; epidemiology; cancer control, prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment; as well as long-term survival/survivorship; rehabilitation; and end-of-life issues. In addition, the DEA serves as a focal point for information about the NCI's peer review and grants policies.
- DIRECT COSTS:
Costs that can be specifically identified with a particular activity or project
- DRP: DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
- EDRN: EARLY DETECTION RESEARCH NETWORK (DCP)
Network responsible for the development, evaluation, and validation of biomarkers for earlier cancer detection and risk assessment. EDRN supports translational research in the biology of incipient neoplasia encompassing the development, characterization and testing of biomarkers of early cancer or risk, development of relevant technologies for biomarker detection, analytical tools for data analysis and interpretation, and the validation of biomarkers for clinical outcome
The study of causes or origins
- F&A COSTS: FACILITIES & ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS
Costs (previously known as indirect costs) that are incurred by a grantee for a common or joint objective and therefore cannot be identified with a particular project or program
- FOIA: THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT
5 U.S.C. 552, provides individuals with a right to access to records in the possession of the Federal government
- GELCC: GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY LUNG CANCER CENTER
The study of the complete genetic material, including genes and their functions, of an organism
- GLP: GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICES
Refers to a system of management controls for laboratories and research organisations to ensure the consistency and reliability of results
- GMO: GRANTS MANAGEMENT OFFICER
Individual designated by an awarding component to be responsible for ensuring that both the granting agency and grantees meet all requirements of laws, regulations, and formally established policies
- GMP: GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES
A set of regulations, codes, and guidelines for the manufacture of drugs (known as medicinal products in Europe), medical devices, diagnostic products, foods products and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs)
- GMS: GRANTS MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST
An individual selected by the Grants Management Officer to serve as the focal point of the awarding component for all business/management activities associated with the negotiation, award, and administration of a grant or cooperative agreement. He/she also interprets grant administration policy and provisions.
- GRANTS PROCESS
- HIPAA: HEALTH INSURANCE PORTABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY ACT
The Privacy Rule set national standards for the protection of health information, as applied to the three types of covered entities: health plans, health care clearinghouses, and health care providers who conduct certain health care transactions electronically; a response to public concern over potential abuses of the privacy of health information which established a category of health information, referred to as “protected health information” (PHI) which may be used or disclosed to others only in certain circumstances or under certain conditions.
- HUMAN SUBJECTS:
Includes, but not limited to, human organs, tissues, and body fluids from living individuals
- IACUC: INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE
IACUC must evaluate and prepare reports, at least twice a year, on all of the Institution's programs and facilities (including satellite facilities) for activities involving animals and is required to review the care and use of animals in PHS-supported activities. The IACUC, through the Institutional Official (IO) is responsible for compliance with reporting requirements.
- IRB: INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD
A group of scientists, doctors, clergy, and consumers that reviews and approves the action plan for every clinical trial. There is an IRB at every health care facility that does clinical research. IRBs are designed to protect the people who take part in a clinical trial. IRBs check to see that the trial is well designed, legal, ethical, does not involve unneccesary risks, and includes safeguards for patients.
- IRG: INITIAL REVIEW GROUP
Review grant and cooperative agreement applications for centers, research projects, and research training activities in the areas of cancer cause, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention; and contract proposals relating to all facets of cancer
- IRG: INTEGRATED REVIEW GROUP
A group of study sections or peer review committees that are arrayed by scientific discipline. Study sections or peer review committees of scientists advise on the scientific and technical merit of research applications submitted for support.
A disease or the incidence of disease within a population. Morbidity also refers to adverse effects caused by a treatment.
- NCAB: NATIONAL CANCER ADVISORY BOARD
Advise the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services and the Director, NCI, with respect to the activities of the Institute including reviewing and recommending for support grants and cooperative agreements, following technical and scientific peer review
- NCICB: NCI CENTER FOR BIOINFORMATICS:
The NCI Center for Bioinformatics (NCICB) provides biomedical informatics support and integration capabilities to the cancer research community. We work with both intramural and extramural groups to develop Initiative-Specific Modules. These modules are connected through intelligent interfaces, coordinated through an NCI Core Module and deployed through open source tools and systems. The NCICB also serves as a focal point for cancer research informatics planning worldwide. We work with research organizations, biomedical informatics groups and standards bodies to facilitate the identification and adoption of information exchange standards, thus connecting research information sources wherever they may reside.
- NCORP: NCI COMMUNITY ONCOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM
- NCRA: NCI COUNCIL OF RESEARCH ADVOCATES
Provide advice and make recommendations to the Director, NCI, from the perspective and viewpoint of cancer consumer advocates on a wide variety of issues, programs and research priorities; serve as a channel for consumer advocates to voice their views and concerns
- NExT: NCI EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS PROGRAM
The mission of the NExT Program is to advance clinical practice and bring improved therapies to patients with cancer by supporting the most promising new drug discovery and development projects. The NExT Program is not a grant mechanism; applications with exceptional science cannot be accepted without a clear path to the clinic or potential benefit to patients. Awardees will not necessarily receive direct funding; rather, the NCI may allocate various contract and grant resources toward the implementation and development of submitted projects. The NCI will partner with successful applicants to facilitate the milestone-driven progression of new anticancer drugs (small molecules, biologics) and imaging agents towards clinical evaluation and registration.
- NOA: NOTICE OF AWARD
A legally binding document that notifies the grantee and others that an award has been made; this document contains or references all terms and conditions for the award and documents the obligation of Federal funds
- NRFC: Not Recommended for Further Consideration
Judgment made by a scientific review group that a grant application has risks or inadequate protections against risks that make it unacceptable. The application cannot be funded by an NIH institute.
- OGA: Office of Grants Administration
Serves as the focal point for all business-related activities associated with the negotiation, award, and administration of grants and cooperative agreements within the National Cancer Institute (NCI)
The branch of medicine that deals with tumors, including study of their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
- PA: Program Announcement
A Program Announcement (PA) is used by the institute to announce its interest in building or enhancing its research program in a particular area. The PA typically is an ongoing solicitation, accepting applications for multiple receipt dates, for up to three years. The PA specifies the scope and objectives of the research of interest, application requirements and procedures, and review criteria to be applied. There are two variations of the standard PA, a Program Announcement with Set-Aside Funds (PAS) and a Program Announcement Reviewed by an Institution (PAR)
- PAS: Program Announcement with Set-Aside Funds
A PAS is a program announcement with a specific dollar amount set aside by the Institute to fund select applications that receive a score beyond the payline. Set-aside funds will be distributed across the duration of the PAS.
- PAR: Program Announcement Reviewed by an Institution
A PAR is a program announcement whose applications will be reviewed by the Institute, rather than the NIH Center for Scientific Review.
A term used to describe the funding selection process for most competing grant applications. If one visualizes a list of grant applications sorted in rank order or priority score (referred to as a “paylist”), one can imagine a line drawn under the last application on that list, which will be funded based entirely on the result of the peer review. That virtual line is the “payline.” The payline separates the applications that will be paid in rank order from those that may be selected based on programmatic relevance, as exceptions, or not paid at all.
- PD/PO: PROGRAM DIRECTOR/PROGRAM OFFICIAL
Serves as a resource for programmatic matters including funding opportunities, scientific direction and pre-application consultations.
- PDQ: PHYSICIAN DATA QUERY
PDQ is an online database developed and maintained by the National Cancer Institute. Designed to make the most current, credible, and accurate cancer information available to health professionals and the public, PDQ contains peer-reviewed summaries on cancer treatment, screening, prevention, genetics, complementary and alternative medicine, and supportive care; a registry of cancer clinical trials from around the world; and directories of physicians, professionals who provide genetics services, and organizations that provide cancer care.
- PLCO: PROSTATE, LUNG, COLORECTAL, OVARIAN SCREENING TRIAL (DCP)
PLCO is a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests reduce death from cancer
- PRESIDENT'S CANCER PANEL:
Monitor the development and execution of the activities of the National Cancer Program, and report directly to the President
The study of the structure and function of proteins, including the way they work and interact with each other inside cells.
- P01: PROGRAM PROJECT GRANT
Program Project Grants are more complex in scope and budget than the individual basic research (R01) grant. While R01s are awarded to support the work of one principal investigator who, with supporting staff, is addressing a scientific problem, program project grants are available to a group of several investigators with differing areas of expertise who wish to collaborate in research by pooling their talents and resources. Program project grants represent synergistic research programs that are designed to achieve results not attainable by investigators working independently. Not all awarding components accept P01 applications.
- P20: EXPLORATORY GRANTS/PLANNING GRANT OF MINORITY & CANCER CENTERS
The objective of this initiative is to help researchers and faculty in Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) in collaboration with the researchers and faculty of NCI-designated Cancer Centers (or other institutions with highly organized, integrated research efforts focused on cancer) plan and initiate focused cancer research, cancer research training, and career development or cancer research education and outreach collaborations that will lead to the submission of specific grant applications traditionally supported by the NCI or other equivalent funding agencies.
- P50: SPECIALIZED/RESEARCH CENTER GRANTS
Research Center Grants serve varying scientific and IC-specific purposes, but they have elements in common. The grants are multidisciplinary in scope and may focus more on an area or discipline of science than on a specific theme or goal. Independent investigators direct the projects and cores. Center grants offer a greater opportunity for scientific interactions and overall progress than with individually-funded projects.
- RFA: REQUEST FOR APPLICATIONS
Identifies a more narrowly defined area for which one or more NIH institutes have set aside funds for awarding grants reviewed by Scientific Review Group
- RFP: Request for Proposals
A RFP is the Government's official solicitation document that communicates to prospective offerors, what it is the Government needs to buy/acquire, and formally invites the submission of proposals. The purpose of the RFP is to convey all information that prospective offeror's need to prepare a proposal. In addition to a description of what it is the Government needs to buy, the RFP also contains various representations and certifications that are required of prospective offerors, proposed terms and conditions that would be applicable to any resultant contract, instructions on how to prepare proposals, and information as to how the Government will evaluate proposals and determine who is selected for award.
- R01: Research Project Grant
The Research Project (R01) grant is an award made to support a discrete, specified, circumscribed project to be performed by the named investigator(s) in an area representing the investigator's specific interest and competencies, based on the mission of the NIH.
- SRO: SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER
The NIH official who serves as the designated Federal official having legal responsibility for managing the peer review meeting, the procedures for evaluating the applications assigned to the SRG and the determinations and management of conflicts of interest, as noted in 42 CFR 52(h).
- SEP: SPECIAL EMPHASIS PANEL
Review grant and cooperative agreement applications and contract proposals for research projects and for research and training activities in broad areas of basic and clinical cancer research. Members and Chairs, rather than formally appointed, are selected to serve for individual meetings on an “as needed” basis in response to specific applications or proposals
- SPOREs: Specialized Programs of Research Excellence
A Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) must provide focal points for sustaining and maintaining state-of-the-art research that will contribute to improved detection, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of an organ-specific cancer (or related groups of cancers). SPOREs are expected not only to conduct a wide spectrum of research activities, but should also contribute significantly to the development of specialized research resources (or cores), improved research model systems, and collaborative research projects with other institutions. The research supported through this program must be translational in nature. Translational research uses knowledge of human biology to develop and test the feasibility of cancer-relevant interventions in humans and/or determines the biological basis for observations made in individuals with cancer or in populations at risk for cancer. Inherently, this process involves interdependence between basic and applied investigators. It should be noted that clinical/ epidemiological research that does not include a laboratory component or capitalize upon a biological discovery relevant to human cancer is not considered translational for the purposes of this program.
- SUMMARY STATEMENT:
A combination of the reviewers' written comments and the SRO's summary of the members' discussion during the study section meeting. It includes the recommendations of the study section, a recommended budget, and administrative notes of special considerations.
- SURROGATE ENDPOINT:
A biomarker intended to substitute for a clinical endpoint; a surrogate endpoint to predict clinical benefit (or harm, or lack of benefit or harm) based on epidemiologic, therapeutic, pathophysiologic, or other scientific evidence.
- TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH:
The SPORE grant programs definition is: Translational research uses knowledge of human biology to develop and test the feasibility of cancer-relevant interventions* in humans AND/OR determines the biological basis for observations made in individuals with cancer or in populations at risk for cancer.
- TYPE 1:
- TYPE 2:
Competing continuation of applications
- TYPE 3:
- TYPE 4:
Application for additional support beyond that previously recommended
- TYPE 5:
Non-competing continuation of applications
- TYPE 7:
Change of grantee institution
- TYPE 9:
Change of NIH awarding institute or division (competing continuation)